STONES
TANZANITE

Colors

Characteristically Blue with violet tinge, lighter specimens are almost lavender

Traditional Cuts

Usually Oval cut, Step Cut also used

Place of Origin

Discovered in Tanzania in 1967

Rarity/Exclusivity

Limited Quantities, found exclusively in Tanzania
CORAL (ORANGE, RED, WHITE)

Colors

Red, Pink, Orange, White

Traditional Cuts

Various Cuts, Beads very common

Place of Origin

Banks of coral are found in the Mediterranean, along the coasts of China, Vietnam, and Japan, near the Philippines and and along parts of the African coastline

Rarity/Exclusivity

Red: Common; Pink and White: Less Common
AMETHYST (PURPLE, GREEN)

Colors

Purple, Green

Traditional Cuts

Oval and drop mixed cuts, step cuts

Place of Origin

Brazil, Uruguay, US, Madagascar, Russia, India, Australia, South Africa

Rarity/Exclusivity

Very Common
CHRYSOPRASE

Colors

Sheer, Bright green

Traditional Cuts

Cabochon, Rounded

Place of Origin

Germany, Russia, US, Canada, Brazil, Uruguay

Rarity/Exclusivity

Common
IOLITE

Colors

Gray, light to dark blue, or violet

Traditional Cuts

Rectangular, step cut, or cabochon

Place of Origin

Germany (Bavaria), Norway, Finland, Brazil, Madagascar
SAPPHIRE

Colors

purple, orange, blue, pink, white, blue, yellow

Traditional Cuts

Oval, round, or rectangular or step cuts

Place of Origin

Kashmir, Burma, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Cambodia, Australia, US, Tanzania, Malawi

Rarity/Exclusivity

Common
GARNET

Colors

green, red, orange, Tsvorite, Madarin

Traditional Cuts

Cabochon, Rose, Rectangular
TOURMALINE

Colors

green, red, orange, Tsvorite, Madarin

Traditional Cuts

Various Cuts

Place of Origin

Sri Lanka, Russia, Afghanistan, Burma, US (California, Maine, Connecticut), Brazil, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Nambia
PARAIBA TOURMALINE

Colors

blue, green

Traditional Cuts

Rectangular

Place of Origin

Brazil, US (maine), Tanzania, Mozambique, Nambia

Rarity/Exclusivity

Plentiful and Widespread
RUBY

Colors

Red

Traditional Cuts

Round or Oval

Place of Origin

Burma, Thailand

Rarity/Exclusivity

Semi- Rare
EMERALD

Colors

Ranges from light to dark green

Traditional Cuts

step or trap cut- also known as emerald cut

Place of Origin

Columbia, Brazil, with small deposits in Zimbabwe, Zambia and Tanzania

Rarity/Exclusivity

Semi- Rare
MOONSTONE

Colors

Grey, chocolate, peach, white

Traditional Cuts

cabochon and round

Place of Origin

Sri Lanka, Burma, India, Australia, Madagascar, Tanzania, the US and Brazil

Rarity/Exclusivity

Very Common
MALACHITE

Colors

striking color stratification from bright to dark green

Traditional Cuts

various cuts

Place of Origin

Chile, the US, Zaire, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Russia and Australia

Rarity/Exclusivity

Very Common
LAPIS

Colors

Deep Blue opaque with fairly distinct crystallizations

Traditional Cuts

various cuts

Place of Origin

Afghanistan, Chile

Rarity/Exclusivity

Limited Quantities
OPAL

Colors

white with various shades of iridescence

Traditional Cuts

Round, Oval, Cabochon and Various

Place of Origin

Czechoslovakia, Australia

Rarity/Exclusivity

Somewhat common
CACHALONG OPAL

Colors

milky to creamy white

Traditional Cuts

Round, Oval, Cabochon and Various

Place of Origin

Russia and Bulgaria

Rarity/Exclusivity

Rare
PINK OPAL

Colors

Soft, opaque pink

Traditional Cuts

Various

Place of Origin

Peru

Rarity/Exclusivity

Rare
PEACH OPAL

Colors

peach with iridescence

Traditional Cuts

Various
FIRE OPAL

Colors

Yellow to Orange or Brilliant Scarlet

Traditional Cuts

Both Cabochons and faceted

Place of Origin

Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras and the US

Rarity/Exclusivity

Common
WATER OPAL

Colors

Clear to pale blue to very light yellow orange

Traditional Cuts

Mostly Cabochons, clear stones cut into facets

Place of Origin

Mexico

Rarity/Exclusivity

Rare
WHITE OPAL

Colors

whitish to light gray, dull yellow, light blue-gray, or pale- blue ground color- with vast range of color patches, due to diffraction

Traditional Cuts

Most often cut into convex cabochons, sometimes cut flat

Place of Origin

Australia, Czechoslovakia, Mexico, smaller quantities found in the US, Brazil, Japan and Indonesia

Rarity/Exclusivity

Precious
BLACK OPAL

Colors

Bluish gray, smoke gray to black

Traditional Cuts

Cabochons

Place of Origin

Australia, small quantities from Indonesia

Rarity/Exclusivity

Precious
BOLDER OPAL

Colors

light brown- from being embedded in ironstone boulders. Opal forms as thin veins within the boulders

Traditional Cuts

Free Form or Irregular shapes

Place of Origin

Australia

Rarity/Exclusivity

Precious
SLICED GEMSTONES

Colors

Various

Traditional Cuts

Mostly flat and irregular, Various

Place of Origin

Varies- depending on the stone

Rarity/Exclusivity

Varies- depending on the stone
SLICED SAPPHIRES

Colors

Various colors, except Red

Traditional Cuts

Flat and/or round shapes-slightly faceted

Place of Origin

Australia, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Madagascar, East Africa and US- Montana

Rarity/Exclusivity

Common
SLICED DIAMONDS

Colors

Various with many inclusions

Traditional Cuts

Flat and/or slightly faceted

Rarity/Exclusivity

Common
SLICED PEARLS

Colors

White, Navy, Black

Traditional Cuts

Flat, slightly faceted

Place of Origin

China and Thaiti (Freshwater) Japan, Australia, China, Indonesia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thaiti, Bahrain, India and Mexico

Rarity/Exclusivity

Common
SLICED TANZANITE

Colors

range of hues from all spectrums of Blue to Violet

Traditional Cuts

Flat, slightly faceted

Place of Origin

Tanzania

Rarity/Exclusivity

Limited Quantities, found exclusively in Tanzania
QUARTZ

Colors

rose, citrine, smokey, lemon, rutilated

Traditional Cuts

Various

Place of Origin

French Alps, Swiss Alps, US, Brazil and Madagascar

Rarity/Exclusivity

Common
TOPAZ

Colors

white, blue, sky, smokey, brown, imperial

Traditional Cuts

Various

Place of Origin

Brazil, Mexico, US, Sri Lanka, Japan, Siberia, Nigeria, Zaire

Rarity/Exclusivity

Common
PERIDOT

Colors

Olive Green

Traditional Cuts

Emerald, Round, Oval, Cushion

Place of Origin

Island of Zebirget, US (Arizona), Hawaiian Islands, Burma and Brazil

Rarity/Exclusivity

Common
CHALCEDONY

Colors

purple, blue, green

Traditional Cuts

Cabochon, Cameos, round, seal stones

Place of Origin

Uruguay, Brazil, Germany, Russia, US, Canada

Rarity/Exclusivity

Very Common
SOUTH SEA PEARLS

Colors

black, yellow, white, pink

Traditional Cuts

Round and in beaded patterns

Place of Origin

Cultured in Indian and Pacific Oceans; Australia, the Philippines, Indonesia and Myanmar

Rarity/Exclusivity

Precious
TAHITIAN PEARLS

Colors

Black with under/over tones of green, pink, blue, silver and yellow

Traditional Cuts

Round, Semi-Round, Button, Circle, Oval, Teardrop, Baroque and Semi-Baroque

Place of Origin

French Polynesia- mainly Tahiti

Rarity/Exclusivity

Rare
AUSTRALIAN PEARLS

Colors

White and off White

Traditional Cuts

Round

Place of Origin

Broome- Kimberley Region of North West Australia

Rarity/Exclusivity

Common
FRESHWATER PEARLS

Colors

Lavender, White, Peach, Black

Traditional Cuts

Round

Place of Origin

China, Japan and US

Rarity/Exclusivity

Rare
ABALONE SHELL

Colors

Iridescent Green and Blue, Multiple Colors

Traditional Cuts

Various

Place of Origin

Australia, US, New Zealand, South Africa, UK Channel Islands

Rarity/Exclusivity

Very Common
TURQUOISE

Colors

blue, white, green

Traditional Cuts

Cabochons, Various shapes

Place of Origin

Iran, US- (Nevada, Arizona, California, New Mexico)

Rarity/Exclusivity

Common
RIVERSTONE

Colors

Brown, Black, Beige, Cream, Tan, White, Off-White

Traditional Cuts

Round, Oval, Cabochon and Various

Place of Origin

Various sources

Rarity/Exclusivity

Common
COLORED DIAMONDS

Colors

yellow, red, blue, black, cognac, brown, milky, grey, white, green

Traditional Cuts

Round, Emerald, Princess, Pear, Marquis, Heart, Asscher, Rose, Oval, Cushion

Place of Origin

Botswana, Russia, Australia, Zaire, South Africa

Rarity/Exclusivity

Precious
LUBIAN GLASS

Colors

white to pale green hue

Traditional Cuts

beads
JADE

Colors

green, white, lavender, black, brown

Traditional Cuts

Various

Place of Origin

Burma, Japan, US (California), Guatemala

Rarity/Exclusivity

Varies
CAMEOS

Colors

Cream, Blue, Black, Mother-of-Pearl, Coral, Green

Traditional Cuts

Mostly round and Oval

Place of Origin

Italy, France, England and US

Rarity/Exclusivity

Varies by piece
AMBER

Colors

Transparent Yellow, Honey, or Brown

Traditional Cuts

Round, Square, Beads, Various

Place of Origin

Poland, Russia, Burma, Dominican Republic

Rarity/Exclusivity

Common
IVORY

Colors

Cream to Yellowish-white

Traditional Cuts

Various

Place of Origin

Cameroon, Gabon, Zaire, Ghana, Sierra Leone, Angola, Tanzania, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, India, Thailand and Burma

Rarity/Exclusivity

Precious
BONE

Colors

Off-White, Red, Brown, Yellow, Black

Traditional Cuts

Beads, Cabochons

Rarity/Exclusivity

Very Common
CAT'S EYE (SAPPHIRE, TOURMALINE, CHRYSOBERYL)

Colors

Green to Green Gray

Traditional Cuts

Round, Beads

Place of Origin

Sri Lanka, Germany (Bavaria), Burma

Rarity/Exclusivity

Common
LABRADORITE

Colors

Dark Gray with rainbow colored reflections (Labradoresence)

Traditional Cuts

Cabochons, Flat or Carvings

Place of Origin

Canada, Finland

Rarity/Exclusivity

UnCommon
AMAZONITE

Colors

Pale green to Blue green; semiopaque

Traditional Cuts

Cabochon, Round, Teardrop

Place of Origin

Brazil, US, Madagascar, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Australia, Russia

Rarity/Exclusivity

Common
GREEN BERYL

Colors

Green

Traditional Cuts

Flat, Rectangular, Square, Round

Place of Origin

Northern Europe, North America, South America, Himalayan Asia, and in Colombia

Rarity/Exclusivity

Common
BLUE BERYL

Colors

Aquamarine to Dark Blue

Traditional Cuts

Round, Square, Rectangular, Triangular, Oval

Place of Origin

Brazil, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Namibia, US

Rarity/Exclusivity

Common
PRYANITE

Colors

Yellow to Green

Traditional Cuts

Round, Beads,Oval, Square, Rectangular, Smooth, Flat shapes

Place of Origin

Australia

Rarity/Exclusivity

Common
JASPER

Colors

Many Varieties of colors

Traditional Cuts

Cabochons

Place of Origin

Australia, Brazil, Canada, Egypt, India, Kazakhstan, Madagascar, Russia, Uguguay, US

Rarity/Exclusivity

Very Common
AGATE

Colors

Blue, Purple, Red, Natural, Fuschia, Teal, Black, Iridescent

Traditional Cuts

Various Cuts

Place of Origin

Brazil, India, Madagascar, Mexico, US, Uruguay

Rarity/Exclusivity

Very Common
ANTLER

Colors

Brown, Black, Gray, Amber, Red

Traditional Cuts

Various Cuts

Place of Origin

Phillipines, India

Rarity/Exclusivity

Very Common
TIGER'S EYE

Colors

Golden yellow and brown

Traditional Cuts

Round, Beads, Cabochon

Place of Origin

South Africa, East Asia

Rarity/Exclusivity

Common
HAWKS EYE

Colors

Blue to Blue Gray

Traditional Cuts

Round, Beads, Cabochon

Place of Origin

South Africa, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Western Australia, Brazil, California

Rarity/Exclusivity

Common
ONYX

Colors

Black and White or Gray and White

Traditional Cuts

Beads, Cabochons, Tablets

Place of Origin

Brazil, India, California, Uruguay

Rarity/Exclusivity

Common
CARNELIAN

Colors

Yellowish Orange to Orange-Red to Brownish Orange

Traditional Cuts

Beads, Cameos

Place of Origin

Brazil, India, Uruguay

Rarity/Exclusivity

Common
PYRITE

Colors

Brassy yellow or pale gold color, opaque with metallic luster

Traditional Cuts

Crystallizations, Cubes and Octahedrons

Place of Origin

Spain, Italy, Norway, Sweden, Germany, Japan, US

Rarity/Exclusivity

Very Common
KUNZITE

Colors

Violet Pink

Traditional Cuts

Oval Mixed Cuts, Pear, Triangular or Step Cut

Place of Origin

California, Maine, Connecticut, Brazil, Madagascar, Afghanistan

Rarity/Exclusivity

Semi- Rare
SPINEL

Colors

black, red, purple, blue

Traditional Cuts

Oval, Round

Place of Origin

Cambodia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Thailand

Rarity/Exclusivity

Semi- Rare
GLASS

Colors

Transparent, Various Colors

Traditional Cuts

various cuts

Place of Origin

Various sources

Rarity/Exclusivity

Very Common
SVAROVSKI CRYSTAL

Colors

Transparent with rainbow iridescence

Traditional Cuts

Round, Teardrop, Oval, Beads

Place of Origin

Austria

Rarity/Exclusivity

Very Common
AQUAMARINE

Colors

light Blue Green

Traditional Cuts

Square, Rectangular, Teardrop, Oval, Round, Various

Place of Origin

Australia, Brazil, China, Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique, Nigeria, Pakistan, US, Zambia

Rarity/Exclusivity

Common